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    Semen Analysis: A Comprehensive Look at Male Reproductive Health

    Reproductive health

    Semen Analysis: A Comprehensive Look at Male Reproductive Health

    Updated on 1 July 2023

    In the realm of assessing fertility, semen analysis stands as the foundation for evaluating the male partner's reproductive potential. Among the various causes of infertility, it has been estimated that around 40-50% of cases can be attributed to "male factor" infertility. Surprisingly, a considerable number, approximately 2%, of men exhibit suboptimal sperm parameters, indicating potential difficulties in achieving successful conception.

    These statistics emphasize the importance of assessing and addressing semen analysis test in couples experiencing difficulties conceiving. This article highlights who requires semen analysis test procedure, how to read semen analysis report, and other aspects regarding semen analysis in fine detail.

    What is Semen Analysis?

    Semen analysis is a diagnostic test that assesses the health and quality of a man's semen, which contains sperm and other fluids. During semen analysis test, various parameters are measured, including sperm count, motility (movement), morphology (shape and size), volume, pH level, and any abnormalities or infections.

    By analyzing these factors, healthcare professionals can gain valuable insights into the man's fertility potential and identify any underlying issues that may contribute to infertility.

    Who Requires a Semen Analysis Test?

    A semen analysis test may be recommended for individuals or couples experiencing difficulties conceiving a child. The doctor may ask you to undergo the test under the following conditions:

    1. Couples struggling with infertility

    If a couple has been actively trying to conceive for a year or more without success, a semen analysis can help determine if male factor infertility is a contributing factor.

    2. Couples undergoing fertility treatments

    Semen analysis is a routine test performed before assisted reproductive techniques such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). It provides vital information to guide the appropriate course of treatment.

    3. Men with certain medical conditions

    It may be recommended for men with certain medical conditions that could affect fertility, such as hormonal imbalances, testicular injury or surgery, genetic disorders, or chronic illnesses.

    4. Men who have undergone vasectomy reversal

    After a vasectomy reversal procedure, a semen analysis is conducted to assess the procedure's success and determine if sperm are present in the ejaculate.

    5. Men considering fertility preservation

    Semen analysis is performed as part of fertility preservation procedures, such as sperm cryopreservation, before undergoing treatments that may impair fertility, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

    What is the Semen Analysis Test Procedure?

    The semen analysis test, also known as a sperm test, involves several steps to evaluate various parameters of the semen and sperm. The procedure typically involves the following:

    1. Sample collection

    The individual will be provided with a sterile collection container and instructed on collecting a semen sample. The sample is usually obtained through masturbation and ejaculation into the container.

    2. Sample handling

    Once the sample is collected, it should be kept at body temperature and delivered to the laboratory within a specified time frame, usually within 30 minutes to an hour.

    3. Analysis of semen parameters

    In the laboratory, the semen sample is analyzed for various parameters that provide insights into male reproductive health.

    4. Interpretation of results

    The laboratory will analyze the collected data and provide a comprehensive report detailing the results of the semen analysis. The results are typically compared to reference values to determine if they fall within normal ranges or if any abnormalities are present.

    How to Read Semen Analysis Report?

    To read a semen analysis report, follow these key points:

    1. Volume

    Check the amount of semen produced during ejaculation. The normal range is typically 1.5 to 5 millilitres (mL).

    2. Concentration

    Look for the sperm count, which indicates the number of sperm per mL of semen. The reference range is usually above 15 million/mL.

    3. Motility

    Assess the percentage of sperm that are actively moving. Aim for total motility above 40%.

    4. Morphology

    Evaluate the shape and structure of sperm cells. The normal range for normal-shaped sperm is typically above 4%.

    5. Vitality

    Check the percentage of live sperm in the sample. A vitality rate above 58% is desirable.

    6. pH level

    Note the acidity or alkalinity of the semen. The normal pH range is typically between 7.2 and 8.0.

    7. Additional tests

    Look for other tests, such as infection screening or DNA fragmentation analysis. These results may have specific reference ranges or guidelines.

    Remember that reference ranges vary slightly among laboratories, so consider the specific reference ranges mentioned in the report.

    What Do the Different Parameters in a Semen Analysis Report Mean?

    Different parameters in a semen analysis report provide information about various aspects of sperm health and fertility. Here's what each parameter typically represents:

    1. Volume

    It indicates the amount of semen produced during ejaculation. A low volume may suggest an issue with the seminal vesicles or ejaculatory ducts.

    2. Concentration

    This parameter measures the number of sperm present in each millilitre of semen. A low concentration may indicate a low sperm count, affecting fertility.

    3. Motility

    It refers to the percentage of sperm that are actively moving. Motility is crucial for sperm to reach and fertilize an egg. Poor motility can hinder the chances of successful fertilization.

    4. Morphology

    It assesses the shape and structure of sperm cells. Abnormalities in sperm morphology may affect their ability to penetrate the egg, resulting in lower fertility.

    5. Vitality

    It indicates the percentage of live sperm in the sample. High vitality is essential for sperm to survive and fertilize an egg successfully.

    6. pH level

    It measures the acidity or alkalinity of the semen. Deviations from the normal pH range can affect sperm function and fertility.

    7. White blood cells (WBCs)

    Elevated levels of WBCs may suggest an infection or inflammation in the reproductive system, which can impact sperm health.

    8. Round cells

    These cells include immature sperm and other non-sperm cells. High levels of round cells may indicate a problem with sperm production or blockage in the reproductive tract.

    9. Fructose level

    Fructose is a sugar present in semen and provides energy for sperm. Low fructose levels may indicate a problem with the seminal vesicles.

    You may also like : Top 4 Kinds of Infertility Treatments to Cure Male Infertility

    What are the Causes of Abnormal Semen Analysis Results?

    Abnormal semen analysis results can indicate various underlying factors that affect sperm health and fertility. Some of the common causes include:

    1. Low Sperm Count

    2. Poor Sperm Motility

    3. Abnormal Sperm Morphology

    4. Varicocele

    5. Infections

    6. Ejaculatory Issues

    7. Hormonal Imbalances

    8. Lifestyle Factors

    9. Genetic Factors

    10. Medical Treatments

    It's important to note that abnormal semen analysis results do not necessarily mean a man is infertile. Further evaluation by a healthcare professional or reproductive specialist is necessary to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment options.

    When to See a Doctor for Male Reproductive Issues?

    If you are experiencing any concerns or issues related to male reproductive health, it is advisable to consult a doctor or a specialist. Here are some situations when it is recommended to seek medical attention such as difficulty in conceiving after actively trying for a year, abnormal semen analysis report, erectile dysfunction, pain or discomfort in any area related to reproductive system like testicles, hormonal imbalance, previous history of reproductive disorders, or STDs then it is essential to seek prompt medical attention.

    Final Thoughts

    Understanding male reproductive health through semen analysis is vital for assessing fertility potential. Abnormal semen analysis test results can indicate underlying issues, such as low sperm count, poor motility, or abnormal morphology. Seeking medical advice from a specialist is recommended when experiencing reproductive problems, as they can provide personalized guidance and treatment options. Remember, professional support is available to help you navigate the path to parenthood and bring joy to your future.


    1. Sunder, M., & Leslie, S. W. (2020). Semen Analysis. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing.

    2. Villani, M. T., Morini, D., Spaggiari, G., Falbo, A. I., Melli, B., La Sala, G. B., Romeo, M., Simoni, M., Aguzzoli, L., & Santi, D. (2021). Are sperm parameters able to predict the success of assisted reproductive technology? A retrospective analysis of over 22,000 assisted reproductive technology cycles. Andrology, 10(2), 310–321.

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    Written by

    Madhavi Gupta

    Dr. Madhavi Gupta is an accomplished Ayurvedic doctor specializing in Medical content writing with an experience of over 10 years.

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