A health condition where the abdominal wall behind the navel is damaged
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Umbilical hernia in children - An overview..
If your baby has a bulge around his belly button, he may have an umbilical hernia. Before his umbilical cord falls off, you may notice that the area seems to stick out a little more when he cries. Or maybe, once the cord is gone, you see that his navel sticks out (an “outie,” as it’s commonly called). In some cases, even if you can’t see a bulge, you might be able to feel one. What Are the Symptoms? You’ll be able to see the hernia most clearly when your child cries, coughs, or strains as he tries to poop. That’s because all of these things put pressure on his abdomen. When he rests, you might not be able to see the hernia. Usually, they don’t hurt. Your child’s doctor can tell if he has one during a physical exam. You’ll want to keep a close eye on your child’s hernia for signs that the intestine has been trapped in the hole and can’t go back in. Doctors call this an incarcerated hernia. It can cause the area around the belly button to become painful, swollen, and even discolored. If you notice any of these symptoms, take your baby to the emergency room. What’s the Treatment? Most umbilical hernias don’t need any treatment. Usually, the hole heals on its own by the time your child is 4 or 5 years old. Even if it doesn’t, it’ll likely get smaller. That’ll make surgery a bit easier. You might think it looks like your child needs to have an operation, but his doctor might suggest you wait to see if the problem goes away on its own. If the hole is large, he may recommend surgery before your child turns 4 or 5. The procedure is done in a hospital or outpatient surgery center. It takes about 45 minutes, and your child will be given anesthesia so that he will not be awake. The surgeon will make a small cut just below the belly button. If any part of the intestine pokes through, he’ll put it back where it belongs. The doctor will use stitches to close the hernia. He’ll also sew the skin under the navel to give it an “innie” look. Then, he’ll seal the cut with surgical glue that’ll hold the edges of the wound together. It’ll come off by itself once the site heals. After the procedure, your child will stay at the hospital while he recovers from the anesthesia. Most kids can go home a few hours later.
Second Trimester Anomaly Scan
The anomaly scan or ultrasound level II scan is the most common scan of the second trimester. This scan can show – · how your baby is growing and check the fetal movements · make sure your baby's internal organs are developing well · detect certain birth defects in your baby · estimate the amount of amniotic fluid · check the umbilical cord and position of the placenta · check for markers of chromosomal abnormalities. · check your cervix and measure the birth canal All pregnant women have a scan at this point because if a problem is detected, the necessary precautions need to be taken. The anomaly scan is done between 18 and 20 weeks. Your doctor may ask you to have more scans during your second trimester if: You are carrying twins or more. Your anomaly scan showed a low lying placenta. You've had spotting or bleeding from the vagina. The anomaly scan revealed problems in your pregnancy that need to be monitored. You have a medical condition such as diabetes or hypertension. You have a history of premature labour or late miscarriage. You do not need a full bladder for this scan. At this stage, your baby is big enough and high enough in your abdomen to be seen very clearly.You will need to expose your tummy, so it is a good idea to wear loose or two-piece clothing such as a salwar kameez or maternity pants and a top. This will allow the ultrasound doctor to access your tummy easily. You may be more comfortable too as you will not have to bother about removing your clothing. Nearly all second trimester scans are done abdominally. The ultrasound doctor applies (usually very cold) gel to your tummy and moves the probe or transducer over it to obtain images of your baby. As sound waves from the transducer bounce off your baby's features or organs, images are formed on a computer screen. The doctor will try his best to get as many angles of the baby in your tummy. When the doctor is able to get a clear picture of the baby, she/he will take measurements. Most hospitals or diagnostic centers allow you to watch the scan being done. It may be hard for you to make out your baby's organs, because the doctor will look at them in cross-section. Your baby's bones will appear white on the scan and soft tissues look grey and speckled. The amniotic fluid surrounding your baby will look black. The doctor will look at: The number of babies you are carrying. Twins are sometimes not found until 20 weeks. The shape and structure of your baby's head. It is possible to detect severe brain problems at this stage, but fortunately these are very rare. Your baby's face to check for a cleft lip. Cleft palates inside a baby's mouth are hard to see and are rarely picked up. Your baby's spine, both along its length and in cross-section. This is done to make sure all the bones align and that the skin covers the spine at the back. Your baby's abdominal wall, to make sure it covers all the internal organs at the front. Your baby's heart. The top two chambers (atria) and the bottom two chambers (ventricles) should be equal in size. The valves should open and close with each heartbeat. The doctor will also examine the major veins and arteries which carry blood to and from your baby's heart. Your baby's stomach. Your baby swallows some of the amniotic fluid that he lies in, which is seen in his stomach as a black bubble. Your baby's kidneys. The doctor will check that your baby has two kidneys, and that urine flows freely into his bladder. If your baby's bladder is empty, it should fill up during the scan and be easy to see. Your baby has been passing urine every half an hour or so for some months now! Your baby's arms, legs, hands and feet. The doctor will look at your baby's fingers and toes. In addition to this detailed look at how your baby is growing, the doctor will check: the placenta the umbilical cord the amniotic fluid The placenta will be described as low if it reaches down to or covers the neck of your uterus (cervix). If the placenta is lying low in your uterus, you'll have another scan in the third trimester to check its position. By then, it's likely the placenta will have moved away from your cervix. About 15 per cent of scans will need to be repeated for one reason or another. But this does not necessarily mean there is something wrong with your baby. Try not to panic in case something out of the normal routine shows up. Discuss it in detail with your doctor. Usually, your doctor will be able to reassure you. Feature Image Scan