Strangers Anxiety

A form of distress that children experience when exposed to strangers.

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A working woman's guide to pregnancy hormonal changes

The hormonal and physiological changes that come with pregnancy are unique. Pregnant women experience sudden and dramatic increases in estrogen and progesterone. They also experience changes in the amount and function of a number of other hormones. These changes don’t just affect mood. They can also: create the “glow” of pregnancy significantly aid in the development of the fetus alter the physical impact of exercise and physical activity on the body Estrogen and progesterone changes Estrogen and progesterone are the chief pregnancy hormones. A woman will produce more estrogen during one pregnancy than throughout her entire life when not pregnant. Pregnancy hormones and exercise injuries While these hormones are absolutely critical for a successful pregnancy, they also can make exercise more difficult. Because the ligaments are looser, pregnant women may be at greater risk for sprains and strains of the ankle or knee. Weight gain, fluid retention, and physical activity Weight gain in pregnant women increases the workload on the body from any physical activity. This additional weight and gravity slow down the circulation of blood and bodily fluids, particularly in the lower limbs.  Sensory changes Pregnancy can dramatically alter how a woman experiences the world through sight, taste, and smell. Breast and cervical changes Hormonal changes, which begin in the first trimester, will lead to many physiological changes throughout the body. These changes help prepare the mother’s body for pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. Hair and nail changes Many women experience changes in hair and nail growth during pregnancy. Hormone changes can sometimes cause excessive hair shedding or hair loss. This is especially true in women with a family history of female alopecia. Stretch marks Stretch marks (striae gravidarum) are perhaps the most well-known skin change of pregnancy. They’re caused by a combination of physical stretching of the skin and the effects of hormone changes on the skin’s elasticity.  Blood pressure and exercise There are two types of circulatory changes that may have an impact on exercise during pregnancy. Pregnancy hormones can suddenly affect the tone in blood vessels. A sudden loss of tone may result in the feeling of dizziness and perhaps even a brief loss of consciousness. This is because the loss of pressure sends less blood to the brain and central nervous system. Dizziness and fainting Another form of dizziness can result from lying flat on the back. This dizziness is more common after 24 weeks. However, it can happen earlier during multi-fetal pregnancies or with conditions that increase amniotic fluid Respiratory and metabolic changes Pregnant women experience increases in the amount of oxygen they transport in their blood. This is because of increased demand for blood and the dilation of blood vessels. This growth forces increases in metabolic rates during pregnancy, requiring women to up energy intake and use caution during periods of physical exertion. Body temperature changes An increase in basal body temperature is one of the first hints of pregnancy. A slightly higher core temperature will be maintained through the duration of pregnancy. Women also have a greater need of water during pregnancy. They can be at higher risk of hyperthermia and dehydration without caution to exercise safely and remain hydrated. Dehydration Most women who exercise for 20 to 30 minutes or who exercise during hot and humid weather will sweat. In pregnant women, loss of bodily fluids from sweat can decrease the blood flow to the uterus, the muscles, and some organs. The developing fetus needs a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients carried through the blood, so injury may result from a lack of fluid.

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Phobias in children - Symptoms & Treatment

What are phobias in children? A phobia is an excessive fear of an object or situation. It’s a fear that lasts for at least 6 months. It is a type of anxiety disorder. These are some different types of phobias: 1. Specific phobia:- A child has anxiety when exposed to a certain object or situation. He or she stays away from the object or situation, dreads it, or endures it with so much fear that it interferes with normal activities. Some common phobias are a fear of animals, insects, blood, heights, or flying. 2. Panic disorder:- A child feels an unpredictable, unexpected period of great fear or discomfort. He or she may have a panic attack. Symptoms include shortness of breath, dizziness, light-headedness, shaking, fear of losing control, and a racing heartbeat. Symptoms can last for hours. But they often peak after 10 minutes. 3. Agoraphobia:- This is a fear of open spaces, such as being outside or leaving home alone. It is linked to one or more phobias or the fear of having a panic attack. 4. Social anxiety disorder:- A child is afraid of one or more social or performance situations with others of the same age group. Examples are acting in a school play or giving a speech in front of the class. 5. Separation anxiety disorder:- A child fears being apart from an attachment figure, such as a mother or father. This condition interferes with daily activities. 6. Selective mutism:- A child can't speak in some social situations. What causes phobias in a child? The cause of a phobia may be both genetic and environmental. A child may develop a phobia if he or she has a fearful first encounter with an object or situation. But experts don’t know if this exposure leads to a phobia. The following may help lead to the development of phobias in children: * Shyness or withdrawing from unfamiliar situations or people (behavioural inhibitions) as a child * Having negative or traumatic life events early in childhood * Mental health issues in family members * Certain physical health conditions (such as thyroid problems or heart arrhythmias), or certain substances or medicines. The physical health problems can produce anxiety symptoms, or make them worse. What are the symptoms of phobias in a child? Each child may have different symptoms when exposed to a phobia. But these are the most common: * Increased heart rate * Sweating * Trembling or shaking * Shortness of breath * Feeling of choking * Chest pain or discomfort * Upset stomach * Feeling dizzy or faint * Fear of losing control or going crazy * Fear of dying * Numbness * Chills or hot flashes A child who has at least 4 of the symptoms may be having a panic attack. These symptoms may seem like other health problems. Have your child see his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis. How are phobias diagnosed in a child? First any physical problems are ruled out. Then a child psychiatrist or other mental health provider will evaluate your child. If your child's history and symptoms meet specific clinical criteria for a phobia, a diagnosis will be made. Panic disorder may be hard to diagnose. Your child may need many tests in different settings. How are phobias treated in a child? Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. Phobias can be treated. Your child may need: * Individual or cognitive behavioural therapy. A child learns new ways to control anxiety and panic attacks when or if they do happen. * Family therapy. Parents play a vital role in any treatment process. * School input. Meeting with the child’s school staff can be very helpful with the early diagnosis. It's also helpful in creating a coordinated treatment plan. * Medicines. Some children may feel better with medicines, such as those used to stop panic attacks. If medicine is prescribed, be certain to ask about side effects and the risks versus benefits of the medicine     use. Content Source