Preconception health is a woman's health before she becomes pregnant. It means knowing how health conditions and risk factors could affect a woman or her unborn baby if she becomes pregnant
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How Sara Ali Khan handled PCOD and became an inspiration for many?
You must have heard about the disease Polycystic ovary syndrome also known as PCOD. Many women all over the world suffer from PCOD which is a lifestyle disease. I too suffer from this disease. PCOD can be defined as a hormonal disorder which may affect women during their reproductive years. According to reports, the disease has affected 1 in 10 women in India. If left untreated, PCOD can cause infertility and other complications. The signs and symptoms of PCOD may include irregular periods, ovarian cysts, weight gain or difficulty shedding weight, acne, dandruff, thinning of hair, excessive body hair, infertility, type 2 diabetes. Recently, I read on the Internet that popular Bollywood actress Sara Ali Khan, daughter of Saif Ali Khan and Amrita Singh, also suffered from PCOD. Sara made the stunning revelation at Karan Johar’s popular chat show ‘Koffee with Karan’. Sara confessed during the popular show that she weighed 96 kilos and suffered from PCOD. The Simba actress also told that PCOD was the biggest obstacle in her way when she decided to become an actress. Due to this disease, it became difficult for her to lose weight and she faced all sorts of problems. However, Sara successfully made a transformation and today the diva has impressed many with her healthy weight loss story. Sara made her acting debut recently with the film Kedarnath which also starred Sushant Singh Rajput. The noteworthy thing here is that if such a leading actress can divulge the entire world about this illness so can you. If you are also suffering from PCOD, there is no shame accepting it and confessing it to your near and dear ones. It will not only help in relieving your burden but also bring down your stress. In return, you will get their much-needed support and you can also seek the best cure for the disease.
What is male infertility?
Male infertility is any health issue in a man that lowers the chances of his female partner getting pregnant. About 13 out of 100 couples can't get pregnant with unprotected sex. There are many causes for infertility in men and women. In over a third of infertility cases, the problem is with the man. This is most often due to problems with his sperm production or with sperm delivery. What Happens Under Normal Conditions? The man's body makes tiny cells called sperm. During sex, ejaculation normally delivers the sperm into the woman's body. The male reproductive system makes, stores, and transports sperm. Chemicals in your body called hormones control this. Sperm and male sex hormone (testosterone) are made in the 2 testicles. The testicles are in the scrotum, a sac of skin below the penis. When the sperm leave the testicles, they go into a tube behind each testicle. This tube is called the epididymis. Just before ejaculation, the sperm go from the epididymis into another set of tubes. These tubes are called the vas deferens. Each vas deferens leads from the epididymis to behind your bladder in the pelvis. There each vas deferens joins the ejaculatory duct from the seminal vesicle. When you ejaculate, the sperm mix with fluid from the prostate and seminal vesicles. This forms semen. Semen then travels through the urethra and out of the penis. Male fertility depends on your body making normal sperm and delivering them. The sperm go into the female partner's vagina. The sperm travel through her cervix into her uterus to her fallopian tubes. There, if a sperm and egg meet, fertilization happens. The system only works when genes, hormone levels and environmental conditions are right. Causes Making mature, healthy sperm that can travel depends on many things. Problems can stop cells from growing into sperm. Problems can keep the sperm from reaching the egg. Even the temperature of the scrotum may affect fertility. These are the main causes of male infertility: Sperm Disorders The most common problems are with making and growing sperm. Sperm may: not grow fully be oddly shaped not move the right way be made in very low numbers (oligospermia) not be made at all (azoospermia) Sperm problems can be from traits you're born with. Lifestyle choices can lower sperm numbers. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking certain medications can lower sperm numbers. Other causes of low sperm numbers include long-term sickness (such as kidney failure), childhood infections (such as mumps), and chromosome or hormone problems (such as low testosterone). Damage to the reproductive system can cause low or no sperm. About 4 out of every 10 men with total lack of sperm (azoospermia) have an obstruction (blockage). A birth defect or a problem such as an infection can cause a blockage. Varicoceles Varicoceles are swollen veins in the scrotum. They're found in 16 out of 100 of all men. They are more common in infertile men (40 out of 100). They harm sperm growth by blocking proper blood drainage. It may be that varicoceles cause blood to flow back into your scrotum from your belly. The testicles are then too warm for making sperm. This can cause low sperm numbers. For more information please refer to the Varicoceles information page. Retrograde Ejaculation Retrograde ejaculation is when semen goes backwards in the body. They go into your bladder instead of out the penis. This happens when nerves and muscles in your bladder don't close during orgasm (climax). Semen may have normal sperm, but the semen cannot reach the vagina. Retrograde ejaculation can be caused by surgery, medications or health problems of the nervous system. Signs are cloudy urine after ejaculation and less fluid or "dry" ejaculation. Immunologic Infertility Sometimes a man's body makes antibodies that attack his own sperm. Antibodies are most often made because of injury, surgery or infection. They keep sperm from moving and working normally. We don't know yet exactly how antibodies lower fertility. We do know they can make it hard for sperm to swim to the fallopian tube and enter an egg. This is not a common cause of male infertility. Obstruction Sometimes sperm can be blocked. Repeated infections, surgery (such as vasectomy), swelling or developmental defects can cause blockage. Any part of the male reproductive tract can be blocked. With a blockage, sperm from the testicles can't leave the body during ejaculation. Hormones Hormones made by the pituitary gland tell the testicles to make sperm. Very low hormone levels cause poor sperm growth. Chromosomes Sperm carry half of the DNA to the egg. Changes in the number and structure of chromosomes can affect fertility. For example, the male Y chromosome may be missing parts. Medication Certain medications can change sperm production, function and delivery. These medications are most often given to treat health problems like: arthritis depression digestive problems infections high blood pressure cancer Diagnosis Causes of male fertility can be hard to diagnose. The problems are most often with sperm production or delivery. Diagnosis starts with a full history and physical exam. Your health care provider may also want to do blood work and semen tests. History and Physical Exam Your health care provider will take your health and surgical histories. Your provider will want to know about anything that might lower your fertility. These might include defects in your reproductive system, low hormone levels, sickness or accidents. Your provider will ask about childhood illnesses, current health problems, or medications that might harm sperm production. Such things as mumps, diabetes and steroids may affect fertility. Your provider will also ask about your use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other recreational drugs. He or she will ask if you've been exposed to ionizing radiation, heavy metals or pesticides. Heavy metals are an exposure issue (e.g. mercury, lead arsenic). All of these can affect fertility. Your health care provider will learn how your body works during sex. He or she will want to know about you and your partner's efforts to get pregnant. For example, your healthcare provider may ask if you've had trouble with erections. The physical exam will look for problems in your penis, epididymis, vas deferens, and testicles. Your doctor will look for varicoceles. They can be found easily with a physical exam. Semen Analysis Semen analysis is a routine lab test. It helps show the cause of male infertility. The test is most often done twice. Semen is collected by having you masturbate into a sterile cup. The semen sample is studied. It can be checked for things that help or hurt conception (fertilization). Your health care provider will study your sperm volume, count, concentration, movement ("motility"), and structure. The quality of your sperm tells much about your ability to conceive (start a pregnancy). For instance, semen is normal if it turns from a pearly gel into a liquid within 20 minutes. If not, there may be a problem with the seminal vesicles, your male sex glands. Lack of fructose (sugar) in a sperm-free sample may mean there are no seminal vesicles. Or it may mean there is a blocked ejaculatory duct. Even if the semen test shows low sperm numbers or no sperm, it may not mean you are permanently infertile. It may just show there's a problem with the growth or delivery of sperm. More test may be needed. Transrectal Ultrasound Your health care provider may order a transrectal ultrasound. Ultrasound uses sound waves bouncing off an organ to get a picture of the organ. A probe is placed in the rectum. It beams sound waves to the nearby ejaculatory ducts. The health care provider can see if structures such as the ejaculatory duct or seminal vesicles are poorly formed or blocked. Testicular Biopsy If a semen test shows a very low number of sperm or no sperm you may need a testicular biopsy. This test can be done in an operating room with general or local anesthesia. A small cut is made in the scrotum. It can also be done in a clinic using, a needle through the numbed scrotal skin. In either case, a small piece of tissue from each testicle is removed and studied under a microscope. The biopsy serves 2 purposes. It helps find the cause of infertility. And it can collect sperm for use in assisted reproduction. Hormonal Profile The health care provider may check your hormones. This is to learn how well your testicles make sperm. It can also rule out major health problems. For example, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is the pituitary hormone that tells the testicles to make sperm. High levels may mean your pituitary gland is trying to get the testicles to make sperm, but they won't. Treatment Treatment depends on what's causing infertility. Many problems can be fixed with drugs or surgery. This would allow conception through normal sex. The treatments below are broken into 3 categories: Non-surgical therapy for Male Infertility Surgical Therapy for Male Infertility Treatment for Unknown Causes of Male Infertility Non-Surgical Treatment for Specific Male Infertility Conditions Many male infertility problems can be treated without surgery. Anejaculation Anejaculation is when there's no semen. It's not common, but can be caused by: spinal cord injury prior surgery diabetes multiple sclerosis abnormalities present at birth other mental, emotional or unknown problems Drugs are often tried first to treat this condition. If they fail, there are 2 next steps. Rectal probe electroejaculation (RPE, better known as electroejaculation or EEJ) is one. Penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) is the other. Rectal probe electroejaculation is most often done under anesthesia. This is true except in men with a damaged spinal cord. RPE retrieves sperm in 90 out of 100 men who have it done. Many sperm are collected with this method. But sperm movement and shape may still lower fertility. Penile vibratory stimulation vibrates the tip and shaft of the penis to help get a natural climax. While non-invasive, it doesn't work as well as RPE. This is especially true in severe cases. Assisted reproductive techniques like in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are of great value to men with anejaculation. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) CAH is a rare cause of male infertility. It involves flaws from birth in certain enzymes. This causes abnormal hormone production. CAH is most often diagnosed by looking for too much steroid in the blood and urine. CAH can be treated with hormone replacement. Genital Tract Infection Genital tract infection is rarely linked to infertility. It's only found in about 2 out of 100 men with fertility problems. In those cases, the problem is often diagnosed from a semen test. In the test, white blood cells are found. White blood cells make too much "reactive oxygen species" (ROS). This lowers the chances of sperm being able to fertilize an egg. For example, a severe infection of the epididymis and testes may cause testicular shrinking and epididymal duct blockage. The infection doesn't have to be sudden to cause problems. Antibiotics are often given for full-blown infections. But they're not used for lesser inflammations. They can sometimes harm sperm production. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (such as ibuprofen) are often used instead. Inflammation from causes other than infection can also affect fertility. For example, chronic prostatitis, in rare cases, can also block the ejaculatory ducts. Hyperprolactinemia Hyperprolactinemia is when the pituitary gland makes too much of the hormone prolactin. It's a factor in infertility and erectile dysfunction. Treatment depends on what's causing the increase. If medications are the cause, your health care provider may stop them. Drugs may be given to bring prolactin levels to normal. If a growth in the pituitary gland is found, you may be referred to a neurosurgeon. Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is when the testicles don't make sperm due to poor stimulation by the pituitary hormones. This is due to a problem in the pituitary or hypothalamus. It's the cause of a small percentage of infertility in men. It can exist at birth ("congenital"). Or it can show up later ("acquired"). The congenital form, known also as Kallmann's syndrome, is caused by lower amounts of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). GnRH is a hormone made by the hypothalamus. The acquired form can be triggered by other health issues such as: pituitary tumors head trauma anabolic steroid use. If hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is suspected, your health care provider may want you to have an MRI. This will show a picture of your pituitary gland. You will also have a blood test to check prolactin levels. Together, an MRI and blood test can rule out pituitary tumors. If there are high levels of prolactin but no tumor on the pituitary gland, your provider may try to lower your prolactin first. Gonadotropin replacement therapy would be the next step. During treatment, blood testosterone levels and semen will be checked. Chances for pregnancy are very good. The sperm resulting from this treatment are normal. Immunologic Infertility Scientists first showed that some infertility cases were linked to immune system problems in the early 1950s. There has been much research since then. Though steroids (by mouth) are sometimes used to lower antisperm antibodies, this rarely works. In vitro fertilization with Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is now preferred for fertility problems caused by the immune system. This abnormality is very rare. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) ROS are small molecules found in many bodily fluids. They are in white blood cells. They are also in the sperm cells in semen. ROS can help prepare the sperm for fertilization. But too much ROS can hurt other cells. Sperm are easily harmed by ROS. Recent studies have shown more ROS molecules in the semen of infertile men. Many compounds have been used to detoxify or "scavenge" (fix) ROS levels. The most studied of these, Vitamin E (400 IU twice daily), can work well as an antioxidant. Pentoxifylline, coenzymeQ, and Vitamin C have also been shown to lower sperm ROS. They're used much less often than Vitamin E. Retrograde Ejaculation Retrograde ejaculation, semen flowing back instead of going out the penis, has many causes. It can be caused by: prostate or bladder surgeries diabetes spinal cord injury anti-depressants certain anti-hypertensives medications used to treat prostate enlargement (BPH) Retrograde ejaculation is found by checking your urine for sperm. This is done under a microscope right after ejaculation. Drugs can be used to correct retrograde ejaculation. It is often treated first with over-the-counter medications like Sudafed®. If medications don't work and you need assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs), your health care provider may try to collect sperm from your bladder after ejaculation. Surgical Therapy for Male Infertility Varicocele Treatments Varicoceles can be fixed with minor outpatient surgery called varicocelectomy. Fixing these swollen veins helps sperm movement, numbers, and structure. For more information on varicocele treatments please refer to our Varicoceles page. Azoospermia Treatments If your semen lacks sperm (azoospermia) because of a blockage, there are many surgical choices. Microsurgical Vasovasostomy Vasovasostomy is used to undo a vasectomy. It uses microsurgery to join the 2 cut parts of the vas deferens in each testicle. For more information on this treatment please refer to our Vasectomy Reversal page. Vasoepididymostomy Vasoepididymostomy joins the upper end of the vas deferens to the epididymis. It's the most common microsurgical method to treat epididymal blocks. For more information on this treatment please refer to our Vasectomy Reversal Page. Transurethral Resection of the Ejaculatory Duct (TURED) Ejaculatory duct blockage can be treated surgically. A cystoscope is passed into the urethra (the tube inside the penis) and a small incision is made in the ejaculatory duct. This gets sperm into the semen in about 65 out of 100 men. But there can be problems. Blockages could come back. Incontinence and retrograde ejaculation from bladder damage are other possible but rare problems. Also, only 1 in 4 couples get pregnant naturally after this treatment. Treatment for Unknown Causes of Male Infertility Sometimes it's hard to tell the cause of male infertility. This is called "non-specific" or "idiopathic" male infertility. Your health care provider may uses experience to help figure out what works. This is called "empiric therapy." Because infertility problems are often due to hormones, empiric therapy might balance hormone levels. It's not easy to tell how well empiric treatments will work. Each case is different. Assisted Reproductive Techniques If infertility treatment fails or isn't available, there are ways to get pregnant without sex. These methods are called assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). Based on the specific type of infertility and the cause, your health care provider may suggest: Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) For IUI, your health care provider places the sperm into the female partner's uterus through a tube. IUI is often good for low sperm count and movement problems, retrograde ejaculation, and other causes of infertility. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) IVF is when the egg of a female partner or donor is joined with sperm in a lab Petri dish. For IVF, the ovaries must be overly stimulated. This is often done with drugs. It allows many mature eggs to be retrieved. After 3 to 5 days of growth, the fertilized egg (embryo) is put back into the uterus. IVF is used mostly for women with blocked fallopian tubes. But it's being used more and more in cases where the man has very severe and untreatable oligospermia (low sperm count). Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) ICSI is a variation of IVF. It has revolutionized treatment of severe male infertility. It lets couples thought infertile get pregnant. A single sperm is injected into the egg with a tiny needle. Once the egg is fertilized, it's put in the female partner's uterus. Your health care provider may use ICSI if you have very poor semen quality. It is also used if you have no sperm in the semen caused by a block or testicular failure that can't be fixed. Sperm may also be taken from the testicles or epididymis by surgery for this method. Sperm Retrieval for ART Many microsurgical methods can remove sperm blocked by obstructive azoospermia (no sperm). The goal is to get the best quality and number of cells. This is done while trying not to harm the reproductive tract. These methods include: Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE) This is a common technique used to diagnose the cause of azoospermia. It also gets enough tissue for sperm extraction. The sperm taken from the testicle can be used fresh or frozen ("cryopreserved"). One or many small biopsies are done, often in the office. Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration (TFNA) TFNA was first used to diagnose azoospermia. It is now sometimes used to collect sperm from the testicles. A needle and syringe puncture the scrotal skin to pull sperm from the testicle. Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA) PESA, like TFNA, can be done many times at low cost. There is no surgical cut. More urologists can do it because it doesn't call for a high-powered microscope. PESA is done under local or general anesthesia. The urologist sticks a needle attached to a syringe into the epididymis. Then he or she gently withdraws fluid. Sperm may not always be gotten this way. You may still need open surgery. Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA) With MESA, sperm are also retrieved from the epididymal tubes. This method uses a surgical microscope. MESA yields high amounts of motile sperm. They can be frozen and thawed later for IVF treatments. This method limits harm to the epididymis. It keeps blood out of the fluid. Even though MESA calls for general anesthesia and microsurgical skill, it has a lower problem rate. It's also able to collect larger numbers of sperm with better motility for banking. After Treatment Male infertility can often be fixed with an outpatient procedure. These are done under general anesthesia or IV sedation. While pain after surgery is usually mild, recovery and follow-up vary. After varicocele repair, your health care provider should do a physical exam. This is to see if the vein is completely gone. Often the veins stay enlarged, since they are not removed during surgery but only closed off to prevent abnormal blood flow. Semen should be tested about every 3 months for at least a year, or until pregnancy. If your varicocele returns, or you stay infertile, ask your health care provider about ARTs. Vasectomy reversals cause only mild pain after surgery. But expect an out-of-work recovery of 4 to 7 days. The chance for pregnancy depends on many things. It mostly depends on the age and fertility of your female partner. The number of years between your vasectomy and reversal also affects success. The longer you wait, the less likely the reversal will be a success. content source
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)- an overview
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs. The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. Early diagnosis and treatment along with weight loss may reduce the risk of long-term complications such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of PCOS often develop around the time of the first menstrual period during puberty. Sometimes PCOS develops later, for example, in response to substantial weight gain. Signs and symptoms of PCOS vary. A diagnosis of PCOS is made when you experience at least two of these signs: Irregular periods. Infrequent, irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles are the most common sign of PCOS. For example, you might have fewer than nine periods a year, more than 35 days between periods and abnormally heavy periods. Excess androgen. Elevated levels of male hormone may result in physical signs, such as excess facial and body hair (hirsutism), and occasionally severe acne and male-pattern baldness. Polycystic ovaries. Your ovaries might be enlarged and contain follicles that surround the eggs. As a result, the ovaries might fail to function regularly. PCOS signs and symptoms are typically more severe if you're obese. When to see a doctor See your doctor if you have concerns about your menstrual periods, if you're experiencing infertility or if you have signs of excess androgen such as worsening hirsutism, acne and male-pattern baldness. Causes The exact cause of PCOS isn't known. Factors that might play a role include: Excess insulin. Insulin is the hormone produced in the pancreas that allows cells to use sugar, your body's primary energy supply. If your cells become resistant to the action of insulin, then your blood sugar levels can rise and your body might produce more insulin. Excess insulin might increase androgen production, causing difficulty with ovulation. Low-grade inflammation. This term is used to describe white blood cells' production of substances to fight infection. Research has shown that women with PCOS have a type of low-grade inflammation that stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens, which can lead to heart and blood vessel problems. Heredity. Research suggests that certain genes might be linked to PCOS. Excess androgen. The ovaries produce abnormally high levels of androgen, resulting in hirsutism and acne. Complications Complications of PCOS can include: Infertility Gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure Miscarriage or premature birth Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis — a severe liver inflammation caused by fat accumulation in the liver Metabolic syndrome — a cluster of conditions including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that significantly increase your risk of cardiovascular disease Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes Sleep apnea Depression, anxiety and eating disorders Abnormal uterine bleeding Cancer of the uterine lining (endometrial cancer) Obesity is associated with PCOS and can worsen complications of the disorder. content source
What Should one Look For In A Surrogate?
Surrogates are generally caring, generous, family-oriented women who feel very strongly about giving others the gift of family. Most are responsible, conscientious woman who are very devoted to the process of surrogacy. The majority of surrogates come from medium to low-income households. The relationship status of surrogates varies from single moms to married women, and education levels vary from GED’s to advanced degrees. What should intended parents look for in a surrogate? Clearly, the primary concern of any intended parent should be the surrogate’s general health and lifestyle and pregnancy history. That being in order, here are some things every intended parent should take into consideration: • The support system the surrogate will have during the surrogacy (will she have the support of a partner, a parent, a roommate, her place of employment or a close friend)? • Her responsiveness to requests from the agency, e.g. whether she has followed through with appointments, etc. (You can ask your agency about that.) • How her partner, husband and/or family feels about the surrogacy? • Whether or not she plans on dating during the surrogacy (assuming she is single). • Whether you and she agree on issues such as reductions or pregnancy terminations. • How your surrogate feels about invasive procedures such as amniocentesis, etc. • How much involvement you want in the surrogate’s life during (and after) the pregnancy/birth (e.g. phone calls, Skype, emails, appointments, through agency only, on-going relationship, etc.) • How important a surrogate’s diet is during the pregnancy and how willing she is to follow requested guidelines. Also, don’t discount your own “Spidey Sense”. Sometimes you just get a vibe about someone, good or bad, and you should go with your instinct. What does an agency look for in a potential surrogate? As you can imagine, many factors go into deciding whether or not we should accept a potential surrogate into our program. Among the factors we consider are: • Health history • Criminal background check • Willingness to work with all types of families • Whether she responds to emails, calls, etc. in a timely manner • Her motivations for wanting to become a surrogate • Her level of openness about the surrogacy • Her ability to make it to her appointments (reliable car and/or form of transportation) • Her overall health, including: o BMI o non-smoker, drugs or alcohol o mental health o pregnancy history • Current living situation: o how many people she lives with and whom o whether her environment is safe and clean o whether her home is close to medical facilities o how her partner and children feel about the surrogacy You mentioned the potential surrogate’s motivations—can you elaborate? There’s no question that compensation is a big motivator for potential surrogates. The funds often help with down-payments on a house, college education, children’s college funds and other major expenses. Additionally, surrogates tend to be women who enjoy helping others and love being pregnant. How do you screen your surrogates? It depends how the surrogate finds or is referred to an agency, but generally the process is this: • The agency has an initial phone conversation with the surrogate to discuss general requirements like height, weight, why she wants to become a surrogate, etc. • Assuming she meets the basic standards of surrogacy, she is then asked to fill out an application which delves deeper into her medical/personal history, etc. At this time, most agencies ask her for permission to conduct a background check for any criminal history she may have. • If everything, including the background check, looks good, a home visit to check her living situation, meet her children and partner (if applicable) and get a general overall view of her lifestyle is conducted. • It’s at that point that an agency will formally admit her into their program and start sending her profile out to intended parents for consideration. content source
Considerations for Choosing a Surrogate Mother
Whether you are a single man or woman or a couple, you may choose to use a surrogate to help bring your dreams of parenthood to reality. When you’ve decided to choose a surrogate mother to help you start a family, there are still further options to consider, like whether you’ll use traditional or gestational surrogacy. With a gestational surrogacy, the carrier becomes pregnant by means of in vitro fertilization (IVF) using the eggs of the intended mother or an egg donor. This means that the surrogate baby is not genetically related to the carrier. With a traditional surrogate, the surrogate’s egg is fertilized with sperm from the intended father or sperm donor through IVF or artificial insemination, making the carrier and the child genetically related. This form of surrogacy is less common than gestational surrogacy. Choosing a Surrogate If you do not already have a surrogate in mind, such as a friend or family member, you can contact an agency or fertility clinic who will help you find one. There are a number of important factors to consider when choosing a carrier for your surrogate baby including: The surrogate’s medical history—this should include a genetic profile (traditional surrogates only), blood tests and obstetric history. The surrogate’s lifestyle choices including their history of drinking and substance abuse. The cost of the surrogacy process—this includes surrogacy compensation, health and life insurance, legal fees, agency fees, psychological screening and monitoring, travel costs, medical expenses, and egg donation compensation and expenses (if applicable) . The legal issues—the laws on surrogacy vary from state to state, so the location of your surrogate is an important issue to consider. What kind of relationship you wish to have with the surrogate after the child is born—you may wish the surrogate to remain an integral part of your child’s life, or have the relationship complete upon delivery. When you are looking for a surrogate with whom you can entrust the first nine months of your baby’s life, you will want to find someone who will treat the pregnancy as if it were her own. If you do choose to find your surrogate through an agency, ask them about their screening process for surrogates, what they are like and why they do this to determine if the agency is able to provide you with the right surrogate for you. Ultimately, the key to making the right choice, is finding a surrogate that you can trust completely and with whom you can feel at ease. content source
Factors responsible for infertility
Some people with fertilityproblems never even know it until they try to have a baby. That’s because oftentimes infertility issues don’t have symptoms. So whether you’re actively trying to have children or just planning to in the future, it’s good to know if anything you or your partner are doing might reduce your chances of getting pregnant. While you can’t control everything that might affect your fertility, there are some things you can. Risk Factors for Infertility Men and women are equally at risk for fertility problems. In about one-third of cases, both partners have issues, or doctors can’t find the cause. Some of the factors that affect a couple’s ability to have a baby include: Age. A woman is born with a set number of eggs. That number drops as she ages, making it harder for her to get pregnant after she reaches her mid-30s. By 40, her chances of getting pregnant drop from 90% to 67%. By age 45, it’s just 15%. A man is less fertile after age 40. Can you lower your risk? Sort of. When you’re ready to have children, don’t wait. The younger you are the better. Smoking. If you smoke tobacco or marijuana, you’re less likely to get pregnant. Tobacco and marijuana can increase a woman’s chance of miscarriage, and decrease sperm count in men. Smokers also hit menopause about 2 years earlier than non-smokers. It can also cause erectile dysfunction(ED). Can you lower your risk? Yes. Don’t smoke or use tobacco products of any kind. Drinking alcohol. Doctors now say there’s no safe amount of alcohol women can drink during pregnancy. It can lead to birth defects. It may also lower your chances of getting pregnant and drinking heavily can decrease sperm count in men. Can you lower your risk? Yes. Men and women should avoid alcohol when trying to conceive. Weight. Women who are overweight can have irregular periods and skip ovulation. But women who are extremely underweight can also have problems -- their reproductive systems can shut down completely. Men who are obese can have lower-quality sperm or ED. Can you lower your risk? Yes. Talk to your doctor about how to exercise and eat to maintain a safe weight, especially if you’re over age 40. But don’t overdo it and strainyour body. Mental health. Both depressionand lots of stress can affect the hormones that regulate your reproductive cycle. Women dealing with these issues may not ovulate normally and men may have a lower sperm count. Can you lower your risk?- Yes. Try to reduce the stress in your life before and while trying to become pregnant. STDs. Having unprotected sex puts you at risk for STDs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and fallopian tube infections in women, and epididymis blockages that can lead to infertility in men. Can you lower your risk? -Yes. Use a condom every time you have sex to reduce your chances of getting certain STDs. Environmental factors. There may be factors in your everyday life that are reducing your chances of getting pregnant -- especially if your job involves toxic substances or hazards. Some dangers include pesticides, pollution, high temperatures, chemicals, or heavy electromagnetic or microwave emissions. Radiation and chemotherapy treatments for cancer can affect both sperm and eggs, too. Her Risks There are certain things that apply only to women. Any one of the following could cause problems with ovulation, hormones, or your reproductive organs: Endometriosis Fallopian tube disease Chronic disease like diabetes, lupus, arthritis, hypertension, or asthma Two or more miscarriages History of irregular periods Early menopause (before age 40) An abnormally shaped uterus Polyps in your uterus Leftover scar tissue from a pelvic infection or surgery Uterine fibroids or cysts Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) His Risks Some factors are male-only, as well, and could affect sperm count, sperm health, or sperm delivery, including: A repaired hernia Testicles that haven’t descended An inflamed or infected prostate Mumps any time after puberty Prescription medications for ulcers or psoriasis Cystic fibrosis Premature ejaculation or a blockage in your testicles Enlarged veins in your testes content source
Fertility test for women
If you and your partner are trying to have a baby but haven't been able to, you may start to wonder if you should get fertility tests. Experts say it's time to check with a doctor if you've had regular sex without birth control for 12 months if you are under the age of 35 and for 6 months if you are over 35. It's important for the two of you to go for testing together. When you see your doctor, he'll probably start by asking questions about your health and lifestyle. He'll want to know things about you and your partner like: Medical history, including any long-term conditions or surgeries Medicines you take Whether you smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, eat or drink things with caffeine, or use illicit drugs If you had contact with chemicals, toxins, or radiation at home or work He'll also want to know about your sex life, such as: How often you have sex Your history of birth control use If you've had sexually transmitted diseases Any problems having sex Whether either of you had sex outside the relationship Your doctor will also have questions about things connected with your periods, such as: Have you been pregnant before? How often have you had periods over the last year? Have you had irregular and missed periods or had spotting between periods? Did you have any changes in blood flow or the appearance of large blood clots? What methods of birth control have you used? Have you ever seen a doctor for infertility, and did you get any treatment? Infertility Tests for Women There is no single best test for infertility. Doctors use a variety of ways to identify any problems that might help cause fertility trouble. You may get a Pap smear. It can detect cervical cancer, other problems with the cervix, or sexually transmitted diseases. Any of these can interfere with getting pregnant. To get pregnant, you need to release an egg each month -- called "ovulation." You may need tests that check for that. Your doctor may ask you to take a urine test at home for luteinizing hormone, or LH. This hormone shows up in high levels just before you ovulate. Your doctor also may check levels of the hormone progesterone in your blood. Increases in progesterone show that you are ovulating. On your own, you can check your body temperature each morning. Basal body temperature rises a bit just after ovulation. By checking it each morning, you'll learn your pattern of ovulation over several months. Your doctor may also run tests on your thyroid, or check for other hormonal problems, to rule out conditions that might cause missed or irregular ovulation. Tests of Reproductive Organs Before you can get pregnant, your uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries all need to work right. Your doctor may suggest different procedures that can check the health of these organs: Hysterosalpingogram (HSG). Also called a "tubogram," this is a series of X-rays of your fallopian tubes and uterus. The X-rays are taken after your doctor injects liquid dye through the vagina. Another method uses saline and air instead of dye and an ultrasound. The HSG can help you learn if your fallopian tubes are blocked or if you have any defects of your uterus. The test is usually done just after your menstrual period. Transvaginal ultrasound. A doctor places an ultrasound "wand" into the vagina and brings it close to the pelvic organs. Using sound waves, he'll be able to see images of the ovaries and uterus to check for problems there. Hysteroscopy. Your doctor puts a thin, flexible tube -- with a camera on the end -- through the cervix and into the uterus. He can see problems there and take tissue samples if needed. Laparoscopy. Your doctor makes small cuts in your belly and inserts tools, including a camera. This surgery can check your entire pelvis and potentially correct problems, such as endometriosis, a disease that affects the uterus. Other Infertility Tests A doctor may order other tests to check for fertility problems. You may get a blood test to check your levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH, which triggers your ovaries to prepare an egg for release each month. High FSH can mean lower fertility in women. The FSH blood levels get checked early in your menstrual cycle (often on day 3). Clomiphene citrate challenge testing can be done with the FSH test. You take a pill of clomiphene citrate on the fifth through ninth days of your menstrual cycle. FSH gets checked on day 3 (before you take the medicine) and on day 10 (after). High FSH levels suggest you have lower chances of getting pregnant. Your doctor may also suggest a blood test to check for a hormone called inhibin B. Levels may be lower in women with fertility problems, but experts are divided about whether the test can predict infertility. Take this assessment to find out if there are other health care providers who can help with your symptoms. Another exam is called postcoital testing. Your doctor examines your cervical mucus after you've had sex. Some studies suggest it may not be so useful. Your doctor may also recommend an endometrial biopsy. In this procedure, he takes a sample of tissue from the lining of your uterus. But evidence is mounting that endometrial biopsy is not helpful in predicting or treating infertility. You may not need to have all these tests. Your doctor can discuss with you which ones are best in your situation. After the testing is done, about 85% of couples will have some idea about why they're having trouble getting pregnant. content source
Symptoms of infertility
Infertility is when you cannot get pregnant after having unprotected, regular sex for six months to one year, depending on your age. The main symptom of infertilityis not getting pregnant. You may not have or notice any other symptoms. Symptoms can also depend on what is causing the infertility. Many health conditions can make it hard to get pregnant. Sometimes no cause is found. Signs of Potential Infertility in Women In women, changes in the menstrual cycle and ovulation may be a symptom of a disease related to infertility. Symptoms include: Abnormal periods. Bleeding is heavier or lighter than usual. Irregular periods. The number of days in between each period varies each month. No periods. You have never had a period, or periods suddenly stop. Painful periods. Back pain, pelvic pain, and cramping may happen. Sometimes, female infertility is related to a hormone problem. In this case, symptoms can also include: Skin changes, including more acne Changes in sex drive and desire Dark hair growth on the lips, chest, and chin Loss of hair or thinning hair Weight gain Other symptoms of disorders that may lead to infertility include: Milky white discharge from nipples unrelated to breastfeeding Pain during sex Many other things can be related to infertility in women, and their symptoms vary. Signs of Potential Infertility in Men Infertility symptoms in men can be vague. They may go unnoticed until a man tries to have a baby. Symptoms depend on what is causing the infertility. They can include: Changes in hair growth Changes in sexual desire Pain, lump, or swelling in the testicles Problems with erections and ejaculation Small, firm testicles When to See the Doctor If you are under 35 and have been trying to get pregnant without success for a year, see your doctor. Women 35 and older should see their doctor after six months of trying. Blood, urine, and imaging tests can be done to discover why you are having trouble getting pregnant. A sperm analysis can be done to check a man's sperm count and the overall health of the sperm. Your doctor may refer you to a reproductive endocrinologist. That's a doctor who specializes in infertility. You will be asked questions about your infertility symptoms and medical history. Before you go to the doctor, write down the following information and take it to your next doctor's appointment: All the medications you take, including prescriptions, vitamins, minerals, supplements, and any other drugs bought without a prescription How often you have unprotected sex, how long you have been trying, and the date of the last time you tried to get pregnant Body changes or other symptoms you have noticed Dates of any surgeries or treatments in the past, especially those involving the reproductive tract. Any radiation or chemotherapy you have had How much you smoke, how much alcohol you drink, and any illegal drug use Any history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Any genetic disorder or chronic illness, such as diabetes or thyroid disease, in you or your family Listen to your body. Tell your doctor any time you notice a symptom. Early diagnosis of an infertility problem may improve your odds of getting pregnant. content source
What Causes Late Ovulation?
For women whose monthly cycle is 28 days, ovulation occurs around day 14. So if you have a regular cycle, ovulation will take place around 14 days before your next period. This makes things much easier for women with a regular cycle to track their period and know when ovulation will occur. And if you’re trying to become pregnant, you’re most likely to conceive on the day that you ovulate and the 5 days beforehand. But is it common to ovulate late? In reality, most women don’t have a regular cycle in one study only 10 percent of women ovulated on day 14. So 28 days is only an average — your cycle may be anywhere from 21 to 35 days. This doesn’t mean that you are less fertile, but it can make it more difficult to know that ovulation is about to occur. It also means that it can be more challenging to guess when sex is most likely to result in conception. If ovulation occurs anytime after day 21 of the cycle, it is generally considered to be late. There are many reasons for delayed ovulation. Here are some of the most common causes: Medications - A wide range of medications can affect ovulation and fertility. These include: • Antidepressants • Cancer chemotherapy • Thyroid medications • Steroids Breastfeeding- One of the natural results of breastfeeding is the change to your menstrual cycle. It’s completely normal for your period to be absent or irregular for the entire time that you’re breastfeeding. This means that your fertility will also be affected as a result. PCOS-Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition that affects how well the ovaries work. The main features of PCOS are: • Irregular menstruation • High levels of male hormones • Enlarged ovaries that contain fluid-filled sacs around the eggs. In women with PCOS, the fluid-filled sacs in the ovaries do not release an egg and so ovulation does not occur. Thyroid malfunctions - The thyroid is a gland at the front of the neck that makes hormones controlling heart rate, body temperature, and other important body indications. An overactive or underactive thyroid can both cause problems during ovulation. Stress - It’s normal to feel stressed during the course of an average day or week. Personal or work challenges and a variety of other factors can make you feel anxious. But when there’s too much stress in your life or it goes on for too long, it can have serious effects on your body. If your period has become very irregular or if you’ve been having trouble getting pregnant despite having regular sex with your partner, it’s possible to stress may be the reason. If you think that stress is having a negative effect on your life and overall well-being, consult your doctor. They’ll be able to advise you about counseling and treatment options. Content and Featured Image Source
Ovulation disorders and their medications
Ovulation refers to the release of an egg during menstruation in females. Issues with the ovulation process can lead to infertility or difficulty conceiving. some types of ovulation disorders are: Polycystic ovarian syndrome A woman with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has enlarged ovaries, often with small, fluid-filled cysts on them. It can lead to a hormone imbalance that can disrupt ovulation. Other symptoms can include insulin resistance, obesity, abnormal hair growth, and acne. PCOS is the leading cause of infertility in women. Hypothalamic dysfunction This happens when the production of the FSH and LH hormones is disrupted. These are the hormones that stimulate ovulation. This can affect the menstrual cycle. Irregular menstrual cycles and amenorrhea, which means not menstruating at all, are common. Causes of hypothalamic dysfunction include excessive physical or emotional stress, extremely high or low body weight, or substantial weight gains or losses. Excessive exercise, low body weight, and tumors of the hypothalamus can also lead to hypothalamic dysfunction. Premature ovarian insufficiency This is when egg production stops prematurely, due to a drop in estrogen levels. It can be due to an autoimmune disease, genetic abnormalities, or environmental toxins. It typically affects women before the age of 40 years. Hyperprolactinemia, or excess prolactin In certain situations, such as the use of medication or an abnormality in the pituitary gland, which produces hormones, women can produce excessive amounts of prolactin. This, in turn, can cause a reduction in estrogen production. Excess prolactin is a less common cause of ovulatory dysfunction. Ovulation can be induced by fertility drugs. These medications are known to regulate or trigger ovulation. Doctors may prescribe the following to treat anovulation, or the cessation of ovulation.. Clomiphene citrate (Clomid): This oral medication increases pituitary secretion of FSH and LH, stimulating ovarian follicles. Letrozole (Femara): This works by temporarily lowering a woman's level of the hormone progesterone to stimulate ovum production. Human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG (Repronex, Menopur, Pergonal) and FSH (Gonal-F, Follistim): These injectable medications are known as gonadotropins and stimulate the ovary to produce several eggs for ovulation. Human chorionic gonadotropin or hCG (Profasi, Pregnyl): This matures eggs and subsequently triggers their release during ovulation. Metformin (Glucophage): This medication is typically used in women with PCOS to treat insulin resistance and increase the chances of ovulation. Bromocriptine (Parlodel) and Cabergoline (Dostinex): These medications are used in cases of hyperprolactinemia. Be aware that taking fertility drugs can increase your chances of having twins or triplets. The above may trigger side effects, including: abdominal pain hot flushes heavy menstrual flow tenderness in the breasts vaginal dryness increased urination spots insomnia mood swings If these become severe, a doctor may be able to suggest other options. content source