The process of milk production. Human milk is secreted by the mammary glands, which are located within the fatty tissue of the breast.
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Sex during and after pregnancy
One of the most common doubts that pregnant mothers and their partners have is whether and how pregnancy will affect their sex life. Is it normal and healthy to have sexual intercourse or does it adversely impact your unborn child? Here’s everything you need to know about sex during and after pregnancy. Sex During Pregnancy In the case of a normal pregnancy, it is perfectly okay to have sex right up until the very end. Your uterus has strong muscular walls along with the amniotic sac which provides protection for your baby. It makes sure the penetration of your partner’s penis cannot harm the baby in any way. If you are worried about infection, then rest assured; the cervix is sealed by a thick mucus plug that prevents any infections. Your baby may thrash about when you orgasm, however, it is only reacting to your heart rate and does not experience any discomfort. Different women react differently to the idea of sex during pregnancy. Some feel less sexual desire, while others feel more interested in sex than before. In either case, it is important to talk openly with your partner about what you are going through and to experiment with different positions and arousal techniques. If you are not 100% sure about your partner’s sexual history, be especially careful to use condoms during pregnancy. Not only do you continue to risk getting an STD when you’re pregnant, but you also risk harming your baby in the process. When Not to Have Sex During Pregnancy Your doctor may advise you to refrain from having sex under the following special circumstances. If you have a history of miscarriages. If you have a history/tendency towards preterm labour. If your placenta is lying low in your uterus. If your cervix has opened too early in the pregnancy. If you’re expecting more than one baby. If you have undergone fertility treatment. If you or your partner has a sexually transmitted disease. If you’re having vaginal bleeding without any known cause. Sex After Pregnancy During the postpartum period, around 6 weeks after the birth of your child, sexual desire in new mothers is almost zero. This is due to a number of reasons. Postpartum bleeding usually lasts between 4 to 6 weeks. Recovering from incisions (vaginal or abdominal depending on the kind of delivery). Sore breasts from continuous breastfeeding. Emotional issues that arise from stress, sleep deprivation, fatigue, and postpartum depression. Most doctors recommend waiting at least 6 weeks after the birth of your child in order to have sex because it takes some time for the vaginal incisions to heal. At the same time, your emotional and mental readiness to have sex is also important. It is essential for both you and your partner to be patient with each other and to realize that it takes most couples a year after childbirth to get their sex lives on track. Featured Image Source
Signs And Symptoms Of Pregnancy Implantation
Below are some of the symptoms associated with pregnancy implantation. However, not all women experience these symptoms, and a pregnancy test is the only sure-shot way of finding out whether you are pregnant. Additionally, many of these symptoms must continue for at least a week after the ovulation cycle is over. 1. Bleeding/Spotting Implantation spotting is the most reliable indicator that implantation has taken place. Light, short bleeding without regular period cramps are a sign of implantation. However, spotting may also be a result of sexual intercourse due to increased sensitivity of the cervix. 2. Cramping The process that takes place within your body leads to implantation cramping. However, this pain can be differentiated from menstrual cramping as its intensity is lesser. One aspect to be noted is that cramping isn’t the result of the physical embedding as it is too tiny to make such an impact. The mild cramping is a result of the hormonal changes that take place within the body after implantation. 3. Soreness of the Breasts After implantation, hormones begin to send chemical messages to the body to prepare itself for pregnancy. In response, the breasts start becoming tender and swollen. You may experience some soreness because of this. 4. Increased Basal Body Temperature Basal Body Temperature (BBT) is the temperature of your body during a state of inactivity. Many women who are actively trying to get pregnant have a BBT chart to track their ovulation. The best time to take this measurement is right after waking up. When you are ovulating, the BBT increases due to the increased progesterone levels. During implantation, there is a dip in the BBT to below 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, after which there is a dramatic rise in temperature. 5. Frequent Urination The implantation leads to a flurry of activities taking place within the body, one of which is an increase of blood flow to the pelvis. This puts stress on the bladder making you feel the need to urinate often. However, this is associated with menstrual cycles as well and is not a guarantee for implantation. 6. Food Craving or Aversion The surge in hormones could make you crave a specific food item that you don’t usually eat. Alternatively, you might feel an intense aversion to food items that you eat on a regular basis. 7. Hot Flashes This can happen due to the dynamic change in hormones that takes place during implantation. 8. Cervical Mucus There will be a marked increase in your mucus flow due to an increase in hormones that will stimulate the cervix. 9. Mood Swings You will experience rapidly changing emotions that can range from crying one minute to being elated the next minute. This is on account of the changes in your hormones. However, these are also pre-menstrual symptoms and do not guarantee implantation. Content Source Featured Image Source
Baby feeding and sleeping schedule: Breastfeeding 4 to 6-month-old
A newborn’s sleep schedules take time to set and therefore it is very tough to get into a consistent routine before 4 months of age. Bedtimes can also be quite inconsistent and erratic in the first 3 months. Now that your baby is 4 months old, this is the perfect time to get your baby into a routine as they naturally settle into a 4-5 nap schedule. Here is your 4 month old breastfeeding schedule: 8am – Wake Up & Nurse 9:30am – Nap 11am – Nurse 12:00pm – Nap 2pm – Nurse 3pm – Nap 5pm – Nurse 6pm – Nap 8pm – Nurse / Bottle (We do a pumped bottle from 8pm onward) 8:30pm – 9pm Bed *Sometimes there is a middle of the night feed around 5am. It is common for baby to still get up 1-2x per night after the first 5-8 hour stretch at this age. Note: If your baby wakes up earlier, adjust the times above accordingly. For example, if your baby wakes up at 7am, then bedtime should be around 7:30-8pm. How many naps for a 4 month old? As you can see your 4 month old is napping 4 times a day now. This schedule has naturally emerged from following a 1.5-2 hour wake time in between naps and trying to do an “Eat, Activity, Sleep” schedule. The crucial point here is that you want to feed your baby AFTER they are awake. This way they are not associating nursing with going to sleep and will likely sleep better at night. This isn’t always possible to do this based on your baby’s nap schedule. Some days the schedule may get thrown off and you may have to nurse right before your baby goes to sleep. And that’s OK! Just try to implement it as often as you can. Naps at this age are typically 45 mins to an hour. Babies at this age haven’t yet learned to connect their sleep cycles so it’s common to have a nap that is just one sleep cycle. 4 month old babies usually nap 4-5 times a day. The key is that you’re wanting your baby to get 15-16 total hours of sleep a day (including naps & night time). How often to nurse a 4 month old? As far as nursing during the day is concerned, you may follow approximately 3 hours intervals in between nursing schedules. You may also nurse on demand and therefore if your baby gets hungry before 3 hours you may feed her. But, it will be ideal also to keep the 3 hours interval in mind. 4 Month Old Breastfeeding Schedule You don’t need to stick to a schedule to the T. Every day will be different and you can adapt and change it as you need to. The key elements of a schedule for a 4 month old is knowing that they will likely need at least 4 naps in the day. Carve out the approximate times for when those naps will be (morning, noon, early afternoon, late afternoon) and plan your day around that. Content source Featured image source
Early Pregnancy Symptoms
The most definitive first sign of pregnancy is usually a missed period, and by then you are technically around 4 weeks pregnant. That’s because the doctors deem that your pregnancy starts from the first day of your last period. However, there are some symptoms that can come before you miss your period and give you a heads-up. When you’re 2 weeks pregnant This is when your body is preparing for ovulation so right about now there is no way you can experience any symptoms as you won’t technically be pregnant. When you’re 3 weeks pregnant Around this time the fertilized egg travels up the fallopian tube and gets implanted on the uterus. Although there may be no symptoms at this time, some women experience “implantation bleeding” which may seem like a light period but is actually a sign of the egg being implanted on the uterus. In some cases, there could be early symptoms like fatigue, nausea, tender breasts, and more frequent urination. When you’re 4 weeks pregnant By this time, since your period should be due by now, a missed period will be the most definitive symptom of your pregnancy. This would be the perfect time to get a pregnancy test done to confirm that you are in fact pregnant. More women will find other symptoms like sore breasts, fatigue, frequent urination, and nausea creep in at this juncture. Yet many others will continue to feel nothing at all. That’s why a missed period is the most definitive symptom of pregnancy. Common early symptoms Here’s a list of most common early symptoms of pregnancy; which can appear just before or together with a missed period. While they are not enough to indicate pregnancy by themselves when they appear together or in conjunction with a missed period, it’s probably time to take a pregnancy test. Sore breasts- These happen due to an increase in progesterone and estrogen and can seem similar to the soreness that some women feel just before their period. Nausea and food aversions- This typically happens first thing in the morning though it can also last through the day. While it takes up to 6-8 weeks to appear for most women, in some cases it can appear as early as Week 3. Frequent urination- Increased pressure on the bladder and the frequent urge to pee, especially at night, is one of the earliest pregnancy symptoms. Food cravings- Your body can start craving all kinds of rich and greasy foods, or even sour foods like tamarind and pickle, even before you miss your period. Cramps and backache- This may be confused for PMS by most women but it actually occurs when the egg is getting implanted on the uterus. Headaches- Many women get mild tension headaches during the first few weeks of pregnancy so if you have this symptom in conjunction with others, you might want to get a test. Nipple darkening- Pregnancy hormones actually affect the colour of the nipples and this may be one of the earliest indications that you’re pregnant. The easiest way to know either way is to take an at home pregnancy test. These home pregnancy tests use your urine to determine whether you’re pregnant in a matter of minutes. Although blood tests provide more accurate pregnancy results, they are generally avoided unless recommended by a doctor. However, the timing of taking a pregnancy test can be tricky to navigate. If taken too soon, there is a chance of getting a false negative. A positive result early on could also prove to be false as it may be a chemical pregnancy. Here’s what you should know about taking a pregnancy test in order to get the most accurate results. How can you avoid a false negative? Here are the common reasons why women test negative when they are actually pregnant. You test too early and your body has not started releasing HCG yet You test early and your levels of HCG are too low for your pregnancy test to detect. Pregnancy tests range in sensitivity from 10mIU/ml to 40 mlU/ml. If you are testing early make sure you use a more sensitive test. Drinking too much water or other fluids right before taking the test may dilute the HCG in the urine and result in a false negative. If you let the urine lie too long(more than 30 minutes) without taking the test, the results will not be accurate. How do you avoid a false positive? You may also get a positive result when you are not actually pregnant in some rare cases. Women who are getting fertility treatment may get a false positive result if they do a test within ten days of their last injection. Women who are perimenopausal, that is women who will soon reach menopause, can also get a false positive result as they have higher levels of circulating HCG. HCG may get released from your pituitary during your LH peak. This may result in a false positive. Sometimes, a miscarriage happens even before the date of the period. This is because pregnancy is not actually viable. Such a pregnancy is known as a chemical pregnancy. In such circumstances, taking an early test may show a positive result whereas the pregnancy was actually unviable. The fact is that most early pregnancy symptoms are often similar to PMS symptoms. Of course, you do know your body best and if you experience some of these symptoms in conjunction with a missed period then it’s best to get a pregnancy test as soon as you can. Featured Image Source
Foods to avoid during breastfeeding
You remained on a healthy diet and avoided many foods for nearly 9 months thinking about the safety of your baby. Now when the baby is finally here, your protective instincts will get more strengthened. Therefore, it is normal to wonder if there are foods to avoid while breastfeeding as particles from the food you eat make their way through the breast milk to your newborn system. Given below are some of the foods that nursing or breastfeeding mothers should completely avoid and why: Seafood: In present times, mercury levels are high in different water bodies which get translated to high levels of mercury in seafood. High levels of mercury are present in shark and king mackerel, unlike other seafood which have lower levels of mercury. Hence doctors advice nursing mothers to completely avoid seafood. Processed food while breastfeeding: Processed foods are quick and easy to prepare especially when you have a baby. But these foods contain preservatives and additives that are toxic for the baby. Additives can also make the baby colic and cause some allergies. Your baby can also turn fussy. Spicy food and flatulence causing food: Spicy food and flatulence causing foods can cause a shift in your baby’s reaction. Though this research is in its rudimentary stage, it would help keep a diary of your diet and your baby’s behavioural change. Sugar and artificial sweeteners: On the whole, it is safe to consume sugar and artificial sweeteners, but in moderation. You can use it occasionally in your food. There are several internal barriers that prevent the baby from consuming excess sugar. The sugar first passes through your blood vessels, plus your baby should want to consume it. As of now there is no conclusive theory to prove that artificial sweeteners are bad for the baby, but it’s best to consume it occasionally. Caffeine and breastfeeding: Avoid consuming caffeine as it can make your baby agitated and prevent your baby from sleeping. You can consume two – three cups of coffee a day, but consult your doctor on the same. Alcohol consumption while breastfeeding: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and post pregnancy is a complete, NO. Even the smallest amount of alcohol can hamper your child’s growth. If you want to consume a glass of alcohol, stop breastfeeding till the alcohol is completely washed from your system. Meat and non- vegetarian products: Meat that has fat absorbs toxins, plus it makes you gain unhealthy weight. It is recommended to consume lean meat for healthy living. Content source Featured image source
10 foods to increase lactation
Lactating women often face issues when they are unable to meet their baby's milk demand. Here are 10 foods that can help to increase lactation in breastfeeding moms- Water OK, so water is not technically a food, but it is the most essential aspect of ensuring you will have an adequate milk supply. According to studies, 75% of Americans are chronically dehydrated. You do not need to drink gallons a day, but you do need to be adequately hydrated. 8 glasses (64 ounces) of fluid a day is an absolute must. In the early stages of your breastfeeding journey its a necessity to have a bottle of water next to where you are going to nurse. You might not be thirsty when you sit down, but it is not uncommon to be overwhelmed by thirst after a few minutes. Oatmeal Oatmeal is fantastic for building and maintaining your milk supply. Whether you enjoy a hearty bowl of hot oats in the morning or you sprinkle granola on your yogurt, make sure you are eating some oats. You already know that oatmeal helps to lower cholesterol and can aid blood pressure regulation, but increasing your supply is another awesome benefit of chowing down on oats. Cookies Not just any cookie, but special lactation cookies. This recipe has been making the rounds for decades, and we are sharing it with you. Garlic You don’t need to go overboard, but adding garlic to your foods not only adds another layer of deliciousness, it also boosts your milk supply. Garlic has been used by nursing mothers for centuries to help boost their milk. A modern bonus for moms who don’t like garlic: garlic pills are commercially available and are said to have no aftertaste. Carrots Get your Bugs Bunny on, mama! Carrots are full of beta-carotene, which just happens to be in extra demand when you’re lactating. Carrots are a healthy source of carbohydrates and will boost your potassium, too. Snacking on carrots is also a great way to help you lose some of that stubborn baby weight. Peel and slice a bag of carrots at a time and store them in your fridge for easy snacking. Fennel Whether you sauté it, stew it, or toss it raw into a salad, fennel is an herb that is widely believed to be an excellent galactagogue. If you particularly dislike anise or black licorice, this herb is not for you. For those with an adventurous palate, fennel is full of healthy phytoestrogens. Bonus for those with queasy stomachs—fennel is also known to be fantastic for aiding digestion and settling an upset belly. Nuts Sometimes being a new mom can make you feel a little nuts. Take a breather, grab a handful of nuts, and enjoy a snack that will help your supply. Cashews, almonds, and macadamia nuts are the most popular choices for giving your milk a boost—they’re also high in good fats and antioxidants. Read labels and go for raw nuts when possible. Many commercially available nuts are heavily oiled and salted—opt for low sodium, or salt-free versions when possible. Green Papaya Yes, we’re talking about eating unripe papaya… In Asia, green papaya is a traditional galactagogue. If you have a favorite Thai restaurant, order Som Tam, which is a green papaya salad. If you’re not a fan of Thai food, try steaming or stir-frying on high heat until tender. Green papaya is also available in tablet form. Sesame Seeds Sesame seed bagels are delicious, and we’ve all had a burger on a sesame seed bun, but you need to get more than just a dash of seeds to help boost your milk. Tahini is a delicious buttery paste made of sesame seeds that you can add into recipes and sauces for a Middle Eastern flair. For those with a sweet tooth, halvah is a delicious sesame seed snack—just don’t eat too much of it because it’s also loaded with sugar. Sesame seeds are not only tasty but high in calcium to boot. Ginger Do you still have ginger ale, candied ginger, and ginger pops left over from your days of morning sickness? They won’t be going to waste after all--ginger is another widely used milk-boosting food. Many Asian and Indian recipes call for ginger, so expand your menu and try cooking some international cuisine. If you’re tired and have no time, enjoy a few ginger snaps instead. Featured Image Source
Breastfeeding benefits after 6 months
Now that you have made it to six months breastfeeding you might be wondering if there are any breastfeeding benefits after 6 months? Well the answer is yes, all the same benefits that your baby already gets from breastfeeding continue past six months and beyond. While it is recommended to introduce solid foods somewhere around the half yearly mark there is no reason to stop breastfeeding. At this point breastfeeding is probably very easy for you. During this time you can really enjoy the breastfeeding relationship that you have established with your baby. There are a lot of strange rumors floating around out there about reasons to stop breastfeeding past a certain age. In truth, there is no reason to stop at six months or even a year. I know when I had my first baby I kept hearing switch to cow’s milk at one year old. Now I am not really sure why I heard this at all. I suppose if you are formula feeding cow’s milk is cheaper and it makes sense to switch. If you are breastfeeding there really is no reason. My daughter hated cow’s milk and I was worried about it but her pediatrician assured me it was not needed. So, we kept on nursing until she decided to wean. I realize now that breast milk was much more nutritious so I am happy with the way it turned out.
Healthy diet plan for breastfeeding mothers
Most Important Tips for Successful Breastfeeding 1. Have Lots of Porridges Why? Because they are easy to digest. According to Indian traditional method, nursing women are given kheers/soups more than usual food, though your dietician will tell you, eat whatever you want. You have to eat a lot and digest it too. These special porridges prepared for Indian women by their moms has many galactogouges like Cumin, fenugreek seeds, poppy seeds, Ghee, almonds etc. You will not get bored of eating. 2. Stay Away from Spicy and Oily Foods Though they say whatever you eat has no direct impact on baby, it is not true. Your baby will show you how your eating affects him/her. The spicy and oily food upsets baby’s stomach, and provides no significant amount of nutrients. 3. Eat Short Meals Frequently If you eat heavy 2-3 meals, your digestive system will suffer. so take small meals with increased frequency. 4. Early Morning and Late Night Kheer Take one bowl of kheer at night just before sleeping and also one more just after getting up. The Date Kheer/Almond Kheer/Aliv Kheer are best for nursing mothers. List of Foods Must to Have: Secret of Successful Breastfeeding Below are the foods you should include in your diet. For details on Healthy Foods for Breastfeeding these 1. Fenugreek Seeds Indians are lucky to get fresh fenugreek Leaves and Seeds, in rest of the world nursing mom take fenugreek supplements. The sprouted seeds are blessing for you during 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. Add fenugreek sprouts to your regular subzi everyday. Or just try stir fry of it with onion and garlic. They do not taste bitter due to sprouting. 2. Garlic Use Garlic in all your curries and soups 3. Cumin Seeds, Poppy Seeds and Fennel Seed They are Galactogogues 4. Bottle Gourds Gourds help to boost milk production. 5. Dill Leaves Healthy for you and baby 6. Almonds Soak them in water overnight and have them in morning, make your baby more intelligent. 7. Coconut Water Full of nutrient and keeps you hydrated 8. Milk and Desi Ghee Desi Ghee for DHA and Milk for Calcium. You must have these to avoid any knee and back pain in future. 9. Edible gum/ Dink (Gondh) They make yours and baby’s bones stronger 10. Water After whatever you eat, water is must to digest and to make milk from it. 11. Whole Grains Sprouted Sprouted grains are much more healthier than usual dry grains. Try Wheat/Ragi/Bajra/Jowar. Make flour of sprouted and dried grains. Use it for making porridges. Moringa Leaves They are super healthy. Try Shatawari Kalp after first 3-4 months of exclusive breastfeeding. Let your body make milk from the healthy regular food before you try any supplements.
Breast lumps during pregnancy: what to expect on a doctor visit?
The first evaluation focuses on your medical history. You'll discuss your symptoms, their relation to your menstrual cycle and any other relevant information. To prepare for this discussion, make lists that include: All your symptoms, even if they seem unrelated to the reason you scheduled the appointment Key personal information, including major stresses or recent life changes All medications, vitamins, herbal remedies and supplements that you regularly take Questions to ask your doctor, from most important to least important to be sure you cover the points you're most concerned about Basic questions to ask your doctor include: What's causing my symptoms? Does having cysts increase my risk of breast cancer? What kinds of tests will I need? What treatment is likely to work best? What are the alternatives to the primary approach that you're suggesting? Are there any restrictions I'll need to follow? Are there any printed materials that I can take home? What websites do you recommend? What to expect from your doctor Be prepared to answer questions that your doctor may ask, such as: When did you first notice the breast cyst or lump? Have you noticed a change in the size of the breast cyst or lump? What symptoms have you experienced, and how long have you had them? Do your symptoms occur in one or both breasts? Have any symptoms changed over time? Do you have breast pain? If so, how severe is it? Do you have nipple discharge? If so, does it occur in one or both breasts? How does your menstrual cycle affect the breast cyst or lump? When was your last mammogram? Do you have a family history of breast cysts or lumps? Have you previously had a breast cyst or lump, a breast biopsy or breast cancer. content source
What to do when you find breast lumps during pregnancy?
Breast lumps during pregnancy Breast lumps detected during pregnancy are generally benign and reflect fibroadenoma, lactating adenoma, cysts, infarction of the breast or galactocele. Although rare, the possibility of breast cancer must also be considered to avoid any delays in diagnosis. After patient questioning and clinical examination, the first imaging modality to use is ultrasound. No further assessment is called for If the clinical signs are unclear then mammography and often biopsy should be performed. The changes to the secretion pathway do not occur evenly within the breast during pregnancy. Hyperplasic lactating adenoma, can cause one or more palpable lumps. Clinical changes Clinical examination reveals a darkening of the nipple and areola, a more prominent nipple and dilated superficial skin veins as from the end of the first trimester. During the final stages of pregnancy, breast adipose tissue nearly completely disappears and is replaced by hard, tight lobes; the skin becomes thinner. A little colostrum may be released by breast massage. Clinical examination can be challenging due to the increased size of the breasts, their sensitivity and especially their harder, more nodular consistency. A previously palpable lump can be concealed during pregnancy by hypertrophic breast tissue, or may increase in size, hence the importance of examining the patient's breasts at the beginning of pregnancy and then at regular intervals during its course. Duct ectasia is frequently observed using ultrasound. The breast is more hypoechoic due to lobular hyperplasia and duct dilation; its echogenicityis more or less homogeneous. Mammograms of pregnant women generally show a higher tissue density because of the young age of the women but also due to glandular development and adipose tissue atrophy, which decreases the sensitivity of mammography. Even so, mammography remains a very helpful modality for diagnosing breast cancer and should therefore be performed if there is the slightest doubt.Pre-pregnancy assessment is important to monitor changes such as increased size or heterogeneity of existing lesions (particularly fibroadenoma, hamartoma and cysts) during pregnancy. Clinical examination When a patient consults for a palpable lump that she has detected, she should be questioned and thoroughly examined in order to confirm the presence of a mass, describe it and prescribe the appropriate complementary investigations.Questioning should be aimed at determining the date of appearance of the lump, as well as individual patient history (possible known fibroadenoma) and familial history. Clinical examination is based on careful breast inspection and palpationand comparison with the contralateral side to: • confirm the presence of the mass; • identify its location and size; • describe its consistency and mobility; • detect related signs: skin retraction, nipple changes, discharge, lymph nodes, signs of inflammation, pyrexia. Finding a breast lump in a young pregnant woman in majority cases (80%) the lump is benign and the patient can be reassured and continue her pregnancy relieved. And when it is cancer, the delay in diagnosis (still very frequent) due to postponing investigations until after delivery, may have serious consequences. Ultrasound is used as the first-line imaging technique. It enables accurate diagnosis of simple cystic lesions and sometimes helps to confirm that there is actually no lump but just normal fibroglandular tissue. It allows accurate investigation of solid lesions. Mammography When 4-view mammography is performed, the mother receives a dose of radiation of about 3 mGy and the dose received by the uterus is lower than 0.03 μGy . The fetus is therefore exposed to a negligible amount of radiation . Doses of up to 1 mGy are considered to be acceptable for the fetus. The threshold value above which there exists a risk for the fetus. Mammography may be performed with a lead screen or apron that approximately halves the dose to the fetus and reassures the patient. Mammography should be prescribed on even the slightest doubt after clinical and/or ultrasound examination, because it can be particularly useful for diagnosis in cases of breast cancer. Moreover, if a lesion contains fatty density, its benignity can be affirmed and biopsy avoided. MRI On the basis of current knowledge, the injection of gadolinum, as is required for breast MRI, is contraindicated during pregnancy. Breast samples It is essential that pathologists be aware that the patient is pregnant before assessing breast samples. Cytological assessment can lead to false negative, as well as false positive results. If atypical findings are observed, taking a biopsy is mandatory in these cases. Biopsy Taking biopsies is the most reliable method for diagnosing solid masses. Biopsies are generally performed using ultrasound guidance but are sometimes also carried out using stereotactic guidance (microcalcifications). In the latter case, there is a slightly higher rate of complications (milk fistula, infection or bleeding), and post-biopsy compression should be applied for a longer time. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) PABC is defined as breast cancer that occurs during pregnancy or within the year following childbirth. It is a rare disease that accounts for only 6–10% of all breast cancers in women aged under 40 years.. The average age of onset is 34 years. Patient questioning on familial history is essential and women with a significant risk should be examined carefully. In majority of cases, breast cancer occurs in young women with no noteworthy history, so the possibility of cancer should not be excluded in a 25-year-old woman just because she has no family history of the disease. Patients may be treated surgically at any time during pregnancy and chemotherapy may be initiated from the 2nd trimester on. The main risk for the fetus is prematurity. Radiotherapy is generally contraindicated during pregnancy, as is hormone therapy. Numerous different oncological, obstetrical, psychological and personal parameters (choice, mother's age, other children, risk factors) need to be taken into account. . Conclusion Breast masses discovered during pregnancy should be investigated immediately either to reassure the patient (most lesions are benign), or if necessary, rapidly implement treatment when breast cancer is diagnosed since any delay in diagnosis and therapy can jeopardize successful management. content source
How to avoid breast lumps during pregnancy?
Breast lumps definition and facts Breast lumps can be caused by infections, injuries, non-cancerous growths, and cancer. Breast cancer usually causes no pain in the breast. The symptoms of breast cancer include painless breast lumps, nipple discharge, and inflammation of the skin of the breast. The chances that a particular breast lump could be cancerous depends on many factors, including past medical history, physical examination, as well as genetic and other risk factors. The only way to be certain that a lump is not cancerous is to have a tissue sampling (biopsy). There are several ways to do the biopsy. The treatment of a breast lump depends on its cause. Breast self-examination Continuing with self-breast exams during pregnancy is important. Unfortunately, during pregnancy it is more difficult to accomplish because of all the changes your breasts are going through. Your breasts are growing in size, are tender, and sometimes may even be lumpy. It is still important for you to examine your breasts during pregnancy every 4-5 weeks. Very common lumps found among women during pregnancy are clogged milk ducts. These are red, tender-to-the-touch, hard lumps in your breasts. Warm compresses (running warm water over your breasts in the shower or applying a warm wash cloth) and massages will probably clear the duct in a few days. If you are unsure of any new lump, tell your doctor on your next visit. Keep in mind breast cancer is rare among women younger than 35. If you are planning on having a baby and are over the age of 35, you may want to consider asking your doctor about a mammogram before you get pregnant. content source